Res. Acacia melanoxylon has pretty grain, and there are claims that it has similar tonal qualities to Acacia koa. Hanson may not have land of his own, but he’s getting sandalwoods in the ground. Management. I just learned everything i know about sandalwood and want to learn more. Please go to the Instagram Feed settings page to connect an account. GISD was created and is maintained by IUCN's Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG). I see ukuleles mislabeled on ebay and elsewhere pretty frequently. They are not. Hanson’s non-profit spent $7,000 to erect small cages around 80 trees. When I asked where the sandalwood came from, he told me he’d felled it on his own ten acres in nearby Miloli‘i, bucked it with a chainsaw and hauled it out piece by piece. Even in the cities, you'll find plenty of parks; the state's capital and largest city, Honolulu, ranked first (out of 100 large U.S. cities) for its percentage of green spaces. Please advise by return…hopefully while we are still in Hawaii at my local time-share for the next two weeks…. I am hoping to meet you and view your Iliahi operations and products for our various projects on Kauai. Many did perish, but not due solely to the sandalwood trade. Woo has allies, including Susan Leopold of United Plant Savers, a Vermont-based non-profit that advocates for rare North American medicinal plants. HENRY thinks that the Hawaiian Lono as "Great Lono dwelling in the waters" (Lono-nui-noho-i-ka-wai) is the Tahitian god Ro‘o, messenger of the gods and especially of Tane, who "sets himself in the cloud" and feeds upon it, is born and matured there, and travels on with it. The state has done a horrific job of safeguarding sandalwood trees—not that anybody in particular is to blame. Information about Ailanthus altissima from IUCN's ISSG/GISD ISSG Tree-of-Heaven (Ailanthus altissima) factsheet Tree-of-Heaven description and suggestions for control are from the Commonwealth of Virginia (Invasive Alien Plant Species of Virginia). Leopold thinks it’s insane that ‘iliahi isn’t better monitored. By 1826, the monarchy’s debts surpassed $200,000. Those planting sandalwood today won’t reap the rewards of their work; they’re planting for future generations. p. 144. Cell phone: (402) 432-2199 Sandalwood harvesters were nicknamed kua leho (callous back) after the callouses they developed from hauling logs down from the mountain. The scent hit me the minute I stepped out of my car. The palm tree is perhaps the most quintessential tropical symbol, but visitors to Hawaii are often surprised by the plethora of beautiful, striking, and straight-up strange trees around the islands. Tree of Heaven Follows Pioneers. “People can’t see the forest for the wood,” he tells me, as we peer down at the tiny tree I’ve just planted. Over the last four years, the Lees’ company, Haloa ‘Aina, has shipped out a thousand metric tons of sandalwood. He did it without permission. Hawaiian royals bought frame houses, silks, liquors and other extravagances using credit, an utterly foreign concept. This error message is only visible to WordPress admins U.S. Dept. Keaweaweʻulaokalani is a name shared by two short-lived princes and heirs to the throne of the Kingdom of Hawaii.Both were named after their father Kamehameha III.In Hawaiian, the name means "the red trail of heaven", signifying the roadway by which the god descends from heaven. Applications to control root-suckering species such as American beech, black gum, and tree-of-heaven (Ailanthus altissima) are most effective from July to the onset of fall coloration. Shannon, Awesome post. He says that Kamehameha Schools, as powerful as it is, doesn’t have the resources necessary to tackle reforestation on its vast acreage. Come help I am grateful to have helped & continue to help. By 1840, the sandalwood supply was exhausted. Ailanthus altissima images from PIER TOH was widely used as an urban street tree in Baltimore and Washington, D.C 2. I came across the group that is also planting sandalwood and koa trees on the big island, I dedicated a few plants to family for christmas this year. Abort our other priorities? After King Kamehameha died in 1819, his son and successor, Liholiho, was ill prepared for his new role as monarch. Wow, I didn’t know most of this. The Lees maintain that the goal of Haloa ‘Aina isn’t logging, but reforestation. “So what do we do? Starting in 2013 we have worked with our State forestry dept. Chinese sumac (Ailanthus altissima) fact sheet Aromatic smoke curled from a pile of sawdust smoldering in a pot. Since 2007, he and some Eagle Scouts have nurtured a 33,000-square-foot patch of native forest. Good for you! ThankYou for sharing your love of this indigenous tree and to Bob Hansen for continuing to propagate it! The boy had led a sheltered life of luxury, gaining a reputation as a gambler and drinker. Tree-of-heaven was first introduced into the United States in the Philadelphia area in 1784. On a tour of the site, I can smell the production shed before we reach it: the air is perfumed with a haunting blend of sweet wood and diesel fuel. The scent hit me the minute I stepped out of my car. Aloha. Planting a tree is a wonderful gift for family members. Mark Hanson, a.k.a. Haloa ‘Aina’s underlying goal, says Wade, is to demonstrate that sustainable forestry can, in part, replace the cattle ranching that now dominates the Big Island’s landscape. Throughout the tropics, the sandalwood industry has been marked by greedy overconsumption and outright theft. I am Larry Rose, the unidentified “illicit” sandalwood artist in the first paragraph of your story. It was first introduced to North America in 1784 in Philadelphia, and became a popular ornamental tree commonly found in nurseries by the 1840s. The Hawaiian Airlines Magazine). Mahalo for this story. He found only two hundred trees on Department of Land and Natural Resources acreage, and another eighty-seven on property belonging to the Department of Hawaiian Home Lands. “I haven’t been arrested yet.”. Beneath the hot sugar of malassadas frying inside the Punalu‘u Bake Shop, I caught a more sultry fragrance…woodsy, hypnotic and unmistakable. Ailantus rhodoptera F. But Aura Cacia, the nation’s largest essential oil company, won’t do business with Haloa ‘Aina. If you know what to look for, you’ll find sandalwoods scattered throughout Hawai‘i. Ailanthus altissima description and ecology from GISD (ISSG) But a true “koa” ukulele can only be made of wood from trees that are from Hawaii. Ailanthus altissima / eɪ ˈ l æ n θ ə s æ l ˈ t ɪ s ɪ m ə /, commonly known as tree of heaven, ailanthus, varnish tree, or in Chinese as chouchun (Chinese: 臭 椿; pinyin: chòuchūn; lit. Before long we’re standing in the world’s largest, most intact ‘iliahi forest. I inquired as to how I could plant a Sandalwood here in our yard in Jim’s honor & was told they don’t grow in Az.! Hanson first learned about ‘iliahi after moving to Maui from Milwaukie in 1979. Images of Ailanthus altissima provided by the Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project (PIER). Tree-of-heaven was also brought to California by Chinese immigrants during the Gold Rush. Agr., Agr. It is highly adaptable to disturbance and a huge range of soil types and conditions, grows best in full sun and is tolerant of drought. Chinese sumac (Ailanthus altissima) description, habitat, biology, and management options are provided by Plant Conservation Alliance's Alien Plant Working Group. Floracopeia and DoTerra buy the oil. The world’s biggest suppliers, India and Australia, battle poachers; thieves pinched as much as 90 percent of India’s harvest in 2012. He’s now working with both Departments to encircle the mountain with sandalwood seedlings. NY: Literature: Smith, E.B. Blakley thinks the native tree should be managed under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)—a possibility the Lees strenuously object to, as it would dramatically restrict their enterprise. A tree grows in Brooklyn. What a beautiful soul- The Sandalwood Man. This tree can be found in 42 states, from Maine to Florida, then into California and even Hawaii. The Four Seasons Resort Hualālai just a few miles down the coast uses Haloa ‘Aina’s powder in spa treatments. To satisfy insatiable international demand, Indonesia and Sri Lanka wiped out their native sandalwood forests. He placed a kapu (restriction) on young sandalwoods to allow the forest to regenerate. He was diagnosed with cancer on Oct. 24 2018 and passed on Nov. 26 2018. State forester Bob Hobdy gave him permission to collect S. Haleakalae seeds from trees at Polipoli State Forest on Maui. Ailanthus altissima description and ecology from GISD (ISSG), The International Plant Names Index (IPNI), Ailanthus altissima (Simaroubaceae): species information from GCW, Ailanthus altissima impact information from GISD (ISSG), Ailanthus altissima weed risk assessment for Hawaii-Pacific, Ailanthus altissima management information from GISD (ISSG), Ailanthus altissima worldwide distribution from GISD (ISSG), Invasive plants of California's wildlands, Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii: Management and research, Ailanthus altissima contacts from GISD (ISSG), Ailanthus altissima references from GISD (ISSG), Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk (HEAR) project, National Biological Information Infrastructure. It’s likely the largest scale sandalwood harvest Hawai‘i has seen in two centuries. Ailanthus glandulosus Desf. (2013) Chinese tree of heaven I do not really have any objection to being used as a dramatic foil for your story, but you have missed a unique chance to visit my ancient Lama/Sandalwood forest. Inside, Hanson points out a rare fern, Asplenium fragile, growing amidst the aweoweo shrubs and blooming māmane. If you’re still looking for Mark Hanson you can reach him at 808-769-0683. Toxicodendron altissimumMill. The Kamehameha Schools team believes that the preservation of rare forest species can’t be a hobby or an academic pursuit—it has to be integral to people’s survival. Women were obligated to deliver twelve-foot lengths of kapa. Root fragments remaining in the soil send up shoots and become new trees. Tree of heaven has the potential of establishing in every state, and has been found on every continent except Antartica. I found a profile for Mark Hanson on LinkedIn; you might try connecting him that way. Sandalwood saplings crowd Mark Hanson’s nursery; he’s one of the few growers to successfully germinate the native Hawaiian tree from seed. In Hawaii, there are thousands of species that fit this broad definition of “invasive species.” There is currently no regulatory list of “invasive species” […] Rene Sylva—a beloved Hawaiian botanist and another self-taught maverick—showed Hanson how to propagate the finicky plant. This new currency ushered in an era of commerce that unraveled the Hawaiians’ centuries-old subsistence lifestyle. It’s the home of S. paniculatum, the fragrant, green-flowered species endemic to the Big Island. Hawaiian legends tell of hau as the visible form of Manoa wind and Hina's sister was changed into a hau tree. While Santalum species typically top out at thirty feet in height, the S. paniculatum here approach sixty-five. In April 1830, Mr. Gulick wrote from Kaua‘i: “Felt distressed and grieved for the people who collect sandalwood. “Sandalwood” and “sustainable” are words not often paired. “With six unique species, Hawai‘i is the Mecca of sandalwood,” she says. Ecologist Nāmaka Whitehead gives me the lay of the land as we rumble up the mountain. X THE SOUL AFTER DEATH. To breathe the life back into our forests is what is needed so we can keep breathing too. Hanson claims that this renewable resource will yield far more income than the tree’s wood. It is a noxious weed in Oregon and Washington. Fire is a constant threat. MA: Literature: Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council. The federal and state definitions for “invasive species” are broad, non-regulatory terms that describe any non-native species that causes or could cause harm to agriculture, natural resources, economy, or human health. He grows sandalwoods by the thousands, but feels frustrated when he finds no safe place to plant them. This error message is only visible to WordPress admins, https://www.linkedin.com/in/mark-hanson-637a0424, http://www.nativehawaiiangarden.org/where-can-i-buy-these-plants. The Australians are already marketing the tasty fruit of their Santalum tree. (C} collection of seed (P) protection of trees (R) replanting of seedlings. The scent of burning sandalwood was intoxicating—and excruciating to those recognized it. Plants of Hawaii MAPS Map index. Hawaii any sunday. The santalol-rich roots and heartwood are processed into essential oil: the highest value product. The landscape is immense, funding shrinks year after year, and public objection to killing sheep is strident. From the sage Banyan to the kaleidoscopic Rainbow Eucalyptus, Hawaii's trees keep photographers inspired and busy. It looks very similar to the mimosa silk trees that are as common in Hawaii as eucalyptus trees are in San Diego. Bitten hard by ensuing drought, the park’s sole vegetation now consists of a few bent and gnarled naio trees. It has since spread as in invasive to much of the United Stated, including Hawaii. But these grey-barked sentries are dying, struck by fire, drought, sheep, rats—and, once again, humans intent on harvesting them. Harper & Brothers, New York. I refuse to sign up for an account with the aggressive linkedIn company and wonder how to contact Mark Hanson for support. 1800s Gold Rush on the West Coast, and in Hawaii in 1924. E-mail or call to learn more. I challenge any man or person to plant 1/2 the amount of trees this man has planted on the Big Island! The tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima) is a rapidly growing deciduous tree native to China that has become a widespread invasive species across North America. Though the world has forgotten them, the majestic trees still exist, and on one Hawaiian hillside they exist in great number. To this day, Hindus smear fragrant sandalwood paste onto their foreheads before meditating. Without data-backed answers to those questions, Blakley says, the fledgling industry is operating in the dark. Required fields are marked *. It was brought to the U.S. in the late 1700s as an ornamental shade tree. By 1810, Kamehameha had successfully vanquished his foes and united the Islands under single rule. Wade Lee’s first priority as landowner was to install fire extinguishers on every half-acre. This University of Hawaii web page contains images of the tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima). They dug pits in the forest the size of ship’s hulls to measure what they needed to harvest. The man’s sign read: “Hawaiian Sandalwood. Its full name is Acacia koa, “Acacia” being the genus name and “koa” the species name. There are many types of Acacias found in different parts of the world. Tree-of-heaven, also known as Chinese sumac, is a deciduous tree native to northeast and central China and Taiwan. They’re partnering with the Three Mountain Alliance and Silversword Foundation to fence ten thousand acres and remove the animals. Sandalwood became the Islands’ first major export. Haloa ‘Aina also sells hydrosol, carving logs, sapwood and powder. Tree of Heaven is a non-native invasive small tree that has naturalized in many parts of the USSA and all areas of NC. Aloha…I am an architect on Kauai (www.KauaiArchitecture.com) and will be on the Big Island November 7 & 8. The new guard seeks to change that. In addition, Tree of Heaven releases a chemical compound that inhibits the growth of other plants. Steve Long Shaved, pinkish logs are stacked outside the open-air shed. 1992. But by 1805, shipments of ‘iliahi were turning significant profits in Canton. He sells plants from his home nursery, but much of the work he does to perpetuate the native forest is unpaid. Koa is endemic or native to Hawaii. High above the glittering waters of South Kona, reaching up the slope of Mauna Loa, is a wide swath of land marked on a 1905 territorial map as Sandalwood Forest. 8. He shrugs. Today this tree is found in most of the Continental U.S., Hawaii, and Canada. Nomenclatural information about Ailanthus altissima is provided by The International Plant Names Index (IPNI). At first, Chinese merchants rejected Hawaiian sandalwood as inferior. How many trees currently exist? Let them go, or start looking outside of the box?”, “The forest is in big trouble,” adds Whitehead. Tree-of-Heaven (Ailanthus altissima) factsheet  “The last few years, the droughts have been longer and more severe. “The guerilla forester.”. In his honor the Nanea Ohana planted a Sandalwood on the 16th tee, his favorite spot. Tree of heaven is reported to be invasive in natural areas in 30 states across continental U.S. and Hawaii. var. The current version would create a task force to study Hawaiian sandalwood and make recommendations for its statewide management. Dr. K.D. A picul of sandalwood fetched an average of $10 in China, in an era when a dollar bought fifty pounds of beef or four hundred pounds of sweet potatoes. Ayurvedic doctors prescribe sandalwood oil to cure skin conditions, while the Kama Sutra praises its aphrodisiac powers. According to Native Hawaiian historian Samuel Kamakau, when the king saw that his people were suffering from famine, he ordered the sandalwood harvesters to return to their farms and fishponds. Acacia melanoxylon (Australian blackwood), and other acacias are being used for ukuleles. 30,000 plants planted on the western slope of Mauna kea. legacytrees.org/ Wade Lee estimates that there’s another 3,579 tons of living and dead wood on the property. I meet Hanson at Mauna Kea State Park on lonely Saddle Road. Peace, plant a tree…. But santalols are only present in the heartwood—not the bark or leaves. Unpublished. Soon to be funded By our State’s Grant in Aided program You our welcome to come plant as many trees for free for Hawaii as you can. A few of these lua moku ‘iliahi (sandalwood pits) remain as testament to bygone forests, one in Kamiloloa on Moloka‘i and another on the Kapalama Nu‘uanu ridge on O‘ahu. Today it’s sunny and clear, the summits of Hualālai and Mauna Kea visible in the distance. Such a shame. Ailanthus altissima references from GISD (ISSG) It’s thriving thanks to the fence and a little extra water. In 1995, Hanson started the non-profit Hawaiian Reforestation Program. Each of the main Hawaiian Islands has its own species. MidSouth Tree of Heaven is found in several counties in each of the five IPAMS states, but appears to be patchily distributed in each state. A weeks-long wildfire scorched this mountainside in 2010. Serv. Very informative, really enjoyed the information on sandalwood trees and their future in Hawaii ! His nursery is a tidy green factory flush with native saplings, sprouted from seeds he collected in the wild. Haloa ‘Aina compensates for the rats by out-planting sandalwoods and other native seedlings grown in their nursery. 808-652-8000, Your email address will not be published. It was initially valued as an urban street tree and was widely planted in the Baltimore and Washington, D.C., area. Identification and biology: A member of the Simaroubaceae family, tree of heaven can grow up Common name: Language: Location: PIER bibliographic reference: Comments: China sumac English ? Kaua‘i, the oldest island, has two: the red-flowered Santalum pyrularium and S. involutum. Hawaiian Mythology, at sacred-texts.com. The plants up here are adapted to dry conditions but not this dry.” Climate change is further weakening an already embattled ecosystem. In Hawaii, the slimy sap of the flower bud was used as a mild laxative. If the elder trees go, will another generation of ‘iliahi take root in the Islands? Coastal sandalwood, or ‘iliahi alo‘e (S. ellipticum), is a smaller, shrubbier species found at low elevation on all of the main islands. IPNI nomenclature info for Ailanthus altissima In the meantime, he worked as George Harrison’s gardener in Nahiku, got married and did a stint in the military. My 3 daughters & I have just returned to Arizona from the Big Island where my husband ran the Nanea Golf Club for the past 15yrs. Sandalwoods are tricky to grow. Just fencing the six-thousand-acre Lupea section was a multi-million dollar endeavor. What level of harvest can a healthy ‘iliahi forest sustain? I am from Bennet, Nebraska (close to the home of Arbor Day). I press my nose up to their flowers. Without the cash flow that sandalwood sales provide, Wade Lee argues that Haloa ‘Aina couldn’t afford its restoration efforts. ISSG. The leaves are the best way to identify this tree as the large compound leaves have a glandular, notched base on each leaflet. When we found out that this beautiful Sandalwood meant Heavenly Tree & it was planted in Jim’s honor & our Arizona home is on Sandalwood we all, including the Nanea Ohana we’re visibly moved!!! Sustainable Harvest.”. Best of luck! Known by a number of names including stinking sumac, Chinese sumac, varnish tree and stink tree, the plant releases a strong, offensive smell, particularly from its flowers. Please go to the Instagram Feed settings page to connect an account. He was there to pitch his grand idea: sandalwood nuts. Towering koa trees cast lacy shadows on the hard lava plain. Tom, I am not sure where you can buy sandalwoods. At one time, this near desert was mixed dry forest, populated by naio, māmane and ‘iliahi trees. “And it’s the only place in the world without any legislation to regulate it.”. Impact information regarding Ailanthus altissima as an invasive species is provided from the Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Those woods are called “acacia”, and sometimes mislabeled as “koa”. With the herbicidal effects the tree-of-heaven is able to kill surrounding native plants and take over completely. He hands me a leafy sandalwood sapling with instructions to plant it beside a māmane, which will serve as its host. Mechanical: Pulling or digging up roots; Chemical: foliar, cut stump, hack and squirt, basal bark herbicide treatment; Images and their description During the height of the sandalwood trade, historians estimate that Hawaiian men hefted at least one hundred thousand piculs of lumber out of the mountains. https://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/tree/ailalt/all.html “If we wait another generation, it will really be challenging. III THE GOD LONO. But that intuitive voice returned, along with a few opportunities. Story By: Shannon Wianecki Photos By: Josh McCullough. I challenge any man or person to plant 1/2 the amount of trees this man has planted on the Big Island!! They need hosts; they’re semi-parasitic and fasten their roots onto those of neighboring plants to draw nutrients. When Captain James Kendrick anchored the Lady Washington off of Kaua‘i in 1791, he found Hawaiians perfuming kapa (barkcloth) with shavings from the ‘iliahi tree. Data is from the Hawaiian Natural Resources Monitoring Database, which was last updated on Nov. 30, 1999. “By offering a lucrative alternative,” he says, “we can grow our native forest back.” But the hitch with sandalwood’s sustainability is its slow growth. Tree of Heaven. 808-333-1540, Wow, that sounds fantastic! Information on Ailanthus altissima as relevant to Pacific Islands is provided by the Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project (PIER). Tree of Heaven is found in several counties in each of the five IPAMS states, but appears to be patchily distributed in each state. When I ask to visit, Kamehameha Schools sends along its entire natural resource management team: five people, including two managers from O‘ahu. And in a hopeful sign for the future, it’s delicious. Ailanthus rhodoptera F. Muell. Dick Heinke. Ailanthus altissima information from PIER Inside, heaps of fragrant sawdust surround a giant distillation tank. I am a 4th generation Maui girl and by the time I was born (1940) the slopes of Haleakala no longer had those forests. Once the acreage is fully fenced and ungulate-free, koa and māmane will regenerate, but the sandalwoods won’t. From these areas, tree-of-heaven has spread and become a common invasive plant in urban, agricultural, and forested areas. Wild ungulates have decimated the forest understory here too, and the trees are stressed by drought: In the 1960s, this area received almost fifty inches of rain per year; now it ekes by with just twenty-four. He lives on partial disability from a back injury he sustained in the military. by Shannon Wianecki (originally published in Hana Hou! But the archipelago’s largest and most abundant sandalwoods inhabit its youngest volcano: Hawai‘i. Tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima) is an invasive plant that grows in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 4 through 8. Frontier Co-op’s researcher, Tim Blakley, says basic questions about Hawaiian sandalwood’s history and life cycle haven’t been answered. Non-Profit spent $ 7,000 to erect small cages around 80 trees fifty-four-year-old is the Mecca of or... Hau tree wooden letter openers, hair picks and bags of incense curled from a back injury he in! 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