Most cultures preferred abstract and stylized forms of humans, plants, and animals, but they had a range of distinct approaches and techniques. Political Systems. Two types of systems, hierarchical political systems and horizontal or acephalous societies, developed to help generate stable communities and foster prosperity. Hence there is the image that Africa is the poor cousin of the global community, backward, suffering and incapable of intellectual contributions that might contribute to development. Other governance systems in the post-independence era and their unique features, if any. First, they were based on an elaborate system of checks and balances. Political system - Political system - Issues of classification: The almost infinite range of political systems has been barely suggested in this brief review. Their economy was not stable because they had to depend on cash crops for money if they couldn’t trade. African politics that can provide insights into the broader themes of the course. While women were never fully equal to men in the political sphere, women in precolonial Africa governed kingdoms, established cities, launched military conquests, and founded states. This holistic health care system has many practitioners and followers and despite its decline for a period of time, traditional African medicine has resurged across the continent in recent years. In this work of normative political philosophy, I consider the ethical status of the South African government's responses to the Marikana massacre, where police shot and killed more than 30 striking miners, in light of a moral principle grounded on values associated with ubuntu. The culture of Ancient Africa was as diverse as the geography of the large continent. Some cultures preferred more naturalistic depictions of human faces and other organic forms. Prospering on the regional trade of copper, ivory, and slaves along the Congo River, the kingdom's wealth was boosted by the arrival of Portuguese traders in the late 15th century CE who expanded even further the slave trade in the region. Central authority existed in the person of the pharaoh and his court. The department of political science has designated this course as a second writing course. By 4000 BCE, Egyptians had begun cultivating crops. Early African civilisations: Ancient Egypt, Nubia and Swahili . ), Emeritus Professor of Social Anthropology in the University of Oxford INTRODUCTION. The rrade was conducted over 12 centuries, roughly from 650-1900. We will look at governance, politics, leadership principles of ancient African empires and kingdoms. The decline is credited to over-population and natural causes such as draught and the lessening supply of gold. Ancient & Medieval Political Thought Page 19 School of Distance Education MODULE – II ANCIENT ROMAN POLITICAL THOUGHT Introduction Ancient Roman Political Thought was much influenced by Stoicism. Ancient Africa: Kingdom of Mali: Created by Alexandra Peragine Block D April 12, 2013: Home; Geography; Organization; Interactions; Significance ; People; Bibliography; Political Organization. In the Middle East the dominant political system was monarchy and aristocracy, which means that they were governed by Kings and hereditary privileged classes. The decline of the empire is not attributed to political system failure whish is a change from most societies. Political Philosophy and Comparative Politics. This was not entirely the case. African political systems and institutions were traditionally based on kinship and on lineage (that is, on common ancestry), sanctioned by a founding myth. A Representative Sample of African. It might seem that the political history of the post-colonial era in Africa has been unstable, with corresponding economic stagnation and poverty. An introduction to African politics, this course will provide for its participants a general survey of the main issues regarding politics in the continent. Political and economic inclusion is the companion requirement for effective and legitimate governance. Mansa Musa. In Ancient Africa if they could not trade then they would have to depend on cash crops for money. Societies. We challenge, especially Africans and people of African descent to compare modern leaders with these below...do they stand the test of excellence and integrity? It might be supposed that this was designed to facilitate the extraction of value from the colonies. The Nile River was very important to Egyptian civilisation. As I said before Ancient Africa’s economy was not very stable. Ancient Egypt though was the first major African civilization. (Cantab. The question then becomes, how to be inclusive? AFRICAN POLITICAL SYSTEMS by Fortes, Meyer CONTENTS: EDITORS' NOTE. PREFACE. Confronted by the vast array of political forms, political scientists have attempted to classify and categorize, to develop typologies and models, or in some other way to bring analytic order to the bewildering variety of data. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. He was elected by a group of governors, usually the heads of important families and occasionally including Portuguese officials. The African political structure is difficukt to describe over the very long period in which the Arab slave trade in Africa took place. Second, political succession was carefully institutionalized in such a way that family, clan, and ethnic competition for power was minimized. Seeming preference for Democracy in Africa over other governance systems in Africa before and after independence 15-17 1.5. The strange and ancient method of multiplication that Ethiopian merchants used for thousands of years is explained. Ancient Egypt. Political History 'Poli' in Latin means 'many' and 'tics' means 'bloodsucking creatures'. Five hundred years later, these peoples evolved into the Ancient Africa’s government was not very unified because each village ruled itself. The Sahara Desert of North Africa, the savanna of West Africa, and the rainforest of Central Africa shaped the way people lived their lives. The explicit function of colonialism (Hart 1982: 43-50) was to impose a system of direct political rule on a West African region that had been extremely fragmented. When the Kongo Kingdom was at its political apex in the 15th and 16th centuries, the King, who had to be a male descendant of Wene, reigned supreme. It is important, however, to roughly sketch the political structure to understand the ebvironment in which both Europeans and Arabs conducted the slave trade. Long before any European power came to Africa, there were states and societies with complex political systems and methods for administration. Consequences of the past mistake The obvious question A bird at hand is worth more than plenty in the bush. Africa - Africa - Economy: With the exception of South Africa and the countries of North Africa, all of which have diversified production systems, the economy of most of Africa can be characterized as underdeveloped. The King also was head of an army containing 200,000 well trained men. This section will focus on styles and procedures of government. Some governed as sole rulers often as queens, while others governed together with a king, as a mother or sister of the king. Areas covered range from political system types, political economies, and political cultures of diverse African countries and regions. Ancient Ghana had a very powerful government that ruled over many less worthy kingdoms. Stoicism founded by Zeno was an influential philosophical school for five centuries from 300 BC to about 200 AD. The Nucleus of the Asante Empire was five city-states of Kumasi, Dwaben, Bekwai, Kokofu and Nsula. Much of what we know about Ancient Africa has been passed down orally over the years through storytellers called griots. This meant that a complex administrative system had to be developed in order to control this vast area. One king who had the title "Ghana", led the entire empire. African Governance Systems 8-12 1.3. The art of ancient African was just as diverse as its cultures, languages, and political structures. Mali was founded by Sundiata Keita whose rule lasted for 25 years. I - Development of African Administration: Pre-Colonial Times and since - Emizet F. Kisangani ©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) empires, kingdoms, and chieftaincies. The Kingdom of Kongo (14-19th century CE) was located on the western coast of central Africa in modern-day DR of Congo and Angola. The topics are quite obscure and will require some investigative work on your part—for your topic you should try . dissolved by the mid-seventeenth century as economic, military and political systems shifted due to the slave trade’s impact. 3 to establish the main facts and the political and social implications of the episode at hand. -Ancient African traders first traded ivory, also it was from elephant tusks (Carr, 2016).-Ancient African traders also traded gold and furs which were exchanged for glass beads (Carr, 2016). Professor A. R. Radcliffe-Brown, M.A. The empire comprised of three parts, namely Kumasi (Metropolitan Asante), Amatoo states and Provincial Asante. The Asante had a centralized political system. Experts on ancient African culture and politics believe that the Zimbabwe were a highly sophisticated society with all the parts needed to be a functional society. Ethiopia’s ancient and advanced system of mathematics is the same sophisticated system that modern computers use today. Comparative perspectives on Governance Systems in Nigeria and UK since 1960 12-15 1.4. The Ghana people were know as the Soninke, and whenever they faced the king they showed him great respect by kneeling and showering dust over their hands. The ancient Egyptian civilisation grew for thousands of years intact because the Nile River Valley and Mediterranean and Red Sea border kept foreigners and their ideas away. The ancient Egyptian civilisation stretched from the Nile Delta in the north to Aswan in the south, covering an area of almost 1000 km in length. 17-19 The British were mainly interested in trade which took priority. India -Ancient Africa's money system was used as cowrie shells, and was also used as money in India and China (Carr, 2016). 19 A number of African states have decentralized their political decision-making systems and moved to share or delegate authority from the center to provincial or local levels. Best known as ancient Rome’s rival in the Punic Wars, Carthage was a North African commercial hub that flourished for over 500 years. He originially founded a central government that kept order and peace throughout the entire kingdom. Dr. M. Fortes and Professor E. E. Evans-Pntchard Aims of this Book. How did the political structures of West African colonies differ from the political structures of pre-modern West African states? CULTURE OF POLITICS IN AFRICA Introduction Africa’s turmoil Colonialism, Independence, Political euphemism of 1970-1990s, and lastly the wake up call to realism 2000 till date. 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