Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, Netherlands. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Only one species, T. Catappa, the Indian almond or tropical almond, is well known in American horticulture, but several others are important in the Orient, principally for their fruits, known as myrobalans, which are used in dyeing, tanning, and in medicine. http://www.cabicompendi m.org/ fc/report.asp?ccode=tem_su, http://www.worldagroforestry.org/ resources/databases/ agroforestree, Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Netherlands License. Engl., Monogr. The flowers are small and white, and produced at the end of dry season before the new leaves. Cette espèce est originaire d' Afrique : Angola, Cameroun, République du Congo, République démocratique du Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Gabon, Ghana, Guinée, Guinée-Bissau, Guinée équatoriale, Libéria, Nigeria et Sierra Leone. Terminalia superba is a deciduous tree species that is usually found in the upper storey in deciduous, semideciduous and moist tropical forests, where it occurs naturally. This study confirms the high antiplasmodial activity and safety of T. catappa and T. superba leaves. As a pioneer species with abundant regeneration and a wide distribution, Clonal breeding is a line of research in the genetic improvement programme for. Combretaceae. It is suitable for light construction, light flooring, ship building, interior trim, vehicle bodies, sporting goods, toys, novelties, musical instruments, food containers, vats, turnery, hardboard, particle board and pulpwood. It has simple, broad leaves. The flowers are pollinated by Bees, Flies. Seedlings are often abundant along roadsides and in medium-sized forest gaps Seedlings are often abundant along roadsides and in medium-sized forest gaps[ The aqueous extract of Terminalia superba leaves was subjected to phytochemical screening. African timbers: the properties, uses and characteristics of 700 species. Limba, white afara, shinglewood, white mukonja, Congo walnut (En). Le présent travail a pour objectif de réaliser une synthèse bibliographique et une analyse des résultats de recherche portant sur la composition phytochimique ainsi que les propriétés biologiques et pharmacologiques de T. superba. & Wong, W.C. (Editors). Annual growth rates of 2.5 m in height have been reported for the first 10 years after planting, but in Ghana trees have reached 14 m in height and 22 cm in bole diameter at an age of 4 years. Names of Terminalia Chebula in various languages of the world are also given. Terminalia superba is most common in moist semi-deciduous forest, but can also be found in evergreen forest. Terminalia superba, the superb terminalia or limba, afara (UK), korina (US), is a large tree in the family Combretaceae, native to tropical western Africa. Limbo (Po). Inflorescence an axillary spike 7–20 cm long, slender; peduncle 1–4 cm long, short-hairy. Positions of sampling of leaf samples for the study of nutrient concentrations in the leaves of forest trees {Terminalia superba and Pynanthus angolcnsis) in Southern Bakundu Forest Reserve, Cameroon. Limba . It is a deciduous riparian tree and it can grow up to a height of about 20 to 27 meters. Elle est beaucoup employée en pharmacopée indigène. It is most common in disturbed forest. Since Terminalia superba is rich in polyphenols (Momo et al., 2009), this activity can be explained by the polyphenols contain in this plant extract. Division of Building Research, CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia. Freshly harvested logs should be removed from the forest immediately, or de-barked and treated with fungicides and insecticides, to avoid attacks by fungi and borers. Research Article Open Access 3 4 0///107 9 1056,/301 Revie Article Open Access Fahmy et al., Med Aromat Plants 2015, 4:5c 10.4172/2167-0412.1000218 *Corresponding author: Growth rings: (1: growth ring boundaries distinct); (2: growth ring boundaries indistinct or absent). In conclusion, this study demonstrates the hypotensive as well as the antihypertensive effects of a crude aqueous extract of the stem bark of Terminalia superba. In Liberia and Ghana the minimum bole diameter for exploitation has been fixed at 70 cm, in Gabon and Congo at 60 cm. shown in Figure 1. Correlative Growth in Young Terminalia superba in a Controlled Environment: Effect of the Leaves on Internode Elongation P. MAILLARD, M. JACQUES and E. MIGINIAC Institut de Physiologie Végétale (Phytotron) C.N.R.S., Gif-sur-Yvette, 91190. "Korina" a trade name in the United States. A favored plantation species in West Africa. Trunk diameter can be up to 1.5 m. It is native to western Africa. Under good conditions planted trees may reach a bole diameter of 50 cm in 20 years. Ethanol extract of leaves is used to cure Sickle Cell Disorder. The rotation that is often applied in plantations is 40 years, but under optimum conditions it can be only 20–25 years. Results from Table 1 show that plant extraction yields varied from 7.45 to 35.50% for Terminalia mantaly parts and from 2.27 to 17.18% for Terminalia superba parts. They float in water and can thus be transported by river. How Terminalia Chebula is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. Wound healing and cardiovascular effects have also been credited to some species. Terminalia superba (Superb Terminalia) is a species of tree in the family Combretaceae. Terminalia superba is widespread in West and Central Africa, from Guinea Bissau east to DR Congo and south to Cabinda (Angola). and Diels (Afara) stands of 11, 13 and 15 years of age and the adjacent natural vegetation at two sites in Onigambari and Sapoba in southwestern were compared.. x�f銠]D��~.W�5�l��q,�E�����4�ش���"Y�G�"I�\Q��~������,��$\yC�����[��ٻI4��┴S�0���f�TQT�n��h>��=)l���X86 Journal of Ethnopharmacology 77: 19–24. It is suitable for paper making, although the paper is of moderate quality. Individuals can grow to 5.4 m. �WK�[���݊���d�n����>�=��3�ۙ���QΩp�����)Q����jb��aLIXlaYߍ_u�C)$��Z�%�^W�Aζ`5h Gᨘ��Dd�o����o���E���H���6�/P ���A�aӸbr#I�ܚ]wq�0��3� `30����l�PL=H��&,T0v%�[z��R��L�:�$-�Y�����#��PO_���-�⋑�yL8��hP6��k(�Z��qN,����9�6΂�>�J]�����G��)���W]�����U�ˣ!%>|oD���-x`c��8�IY�f�2��-{��k�r�hW�,�o.��J[��XGH�*�fX��a��0�a�Lz��A����w�4���_ѹh�*獹�Ʊ� �Ɨ��u�k݀��θ�4Х~Pd͖mN�#��)�m�b뵥8WRW']- �U>�J����-�W6������"fW�.�a�|7���p͓z�+m5��&d����[[ �Zĵ����6pNT��ҋ�"m��$.�Łj� �����9�6��a�S����q�X����֘l�K��^��L8‹��Z�TAW�3��|�&�v�����L��_x�n�kK�s�WV7��Ze\ʷ'� �j����V�r�sݹg) �� Superb Terminalia is a photoautotroph. hal-00882811 Original article Vegetative development, primary and secondary growth of the shoot system of young Terminalia superba tropical trees, in a natural environment. ���p9Bo-�nҺ��7�nXܻ�*��Ky7�ƃ�Z��٦�ɗ�]�q�{w�o;U��F�d*�5.�r3ۉ_��=)����b�{�Q�s'ˬ}�p6�,d{7�U��[g������Ր�w�>bc�,t6�㝁���t��䭬|���{7�΢�o���m�g�o^������|�������n��+����o��ȓ� �V���;D���q*��(L�W�����H���R��S�s�R��x��� L��r@�͉�.��l���4QT��� ���k�k�c׽n���4g��y�p�kwm�!�֭cUS�9�r��k����i�=f�j��hCj� �.���bhmt/�KQ� >*w)�d�/��u~��9��0�a��Sw��,e _@C�������Ga�^���v�j�U_�5]��ŝ��q �c5}�e.�V�����ӫ;�N9;��tA���^�L �K��?�}�P��P��ڽl��y��3k'�s�[�%N�Q�Kk.�~F�ѥ���Ö$���g/a��N�.� 'Y30�� 27,�s��{o�c$x@wZl��59�&��v�{ ���j`����qm#�`�|�D���/o5bv�9�d�0���t����f0f���A�%�Lq � The heartwood is grey to pale yellow or pinkish white, darkening to pale reddish brown, occasionally with a nearly black inner part. It is native to India but also found in Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and some other Asian Countries. Table 2: Documentation of Herbal Medicines Used for the Treatment and Management of Human Diseases by Some Communities in Southern Ghana In natural forest in the Central African Republic a mean annual bole diameter increment of 9.5 mm has been recorded, in Cameroon 11 mm. Terminalia (alluding to the leaves being borne upon the terminus of the shoot). Growth is rhythmic, resulting in clustered leaves and whorled branches. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. The two sites differed in climate, parent materials and soil properties. Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Terminalia Chebula. It grows up to 60 m tall, with a domed or flat crown, and a trunk typically clear of branches for much of its height, buttressed at the base. pp. The number of leaves ranged from 0-14 for Terminalia superba and 5-15 for Triplochiton scleroxylon. In natural forest in Cameroon an average density of 0.4–3.5, Young plantations in Côte d’Ivoire and Nigeria have been defoliated by larvae of the moth. The plant is not self-fertile. 474–492. �����6��V�����r2POX����]�����PI�����o~:m l�p���پ�>�5 ���@�4<92'QH_G2m���`�"b� ��_8��r��:c�!�V�~΀"Q��;��H�HyQ�`7U�UvbL�. It also treats Intestinal parasites and Eye problems. Terminalia superba, le fraké ou limba, est une espèce d’arbre tropical de la famille des Combretaceae. Terminalia superba: Family: Combretaceae: Afara. Please cite this paper as: Ngemenya MN, Abwenzoh GN, Zofou D, Kang TR, Mbah JA. • Sosef, M.S.M., Boer, E., Keating, W.G., Sudo, S. & Phuphathanaphong, L., 1995. The wood is also used as firewood and for charcoal production. Flowers bisexual or male, regular, usually 5-merous; receptacle spindle-shaped, 1.5–3 mm long; sepals triangular, c. 1.5 mm long; petals absent; stamens usually 10, free, 1.5–3 mm long; disk annular, densely woolly hairy; ovary inferior, 1-celled, style 2–2.5 mm long, sparsely hairy. 710 pp. Bottom middle, upper and top crown positions are designated by the letters B, M, U, and T respectively. The leaves of Terminalia bellirica (250 g) and Terminalia sericea (250 g) were air-dried, ground, and extracted with 100% methanol at room temperature for three days (6 × 500 mL). Limba, fraké, noyer du Mayombe (Fr). Terminalia superba is a deciduous Tree growing to 40 m (131ft) by 40 m (131ft) at a fast rate. Older trees often develop boles with brittle heart. France Accepted: 22 May 1987 ABSTRACT Young Terminalia superba plants were cultivated in a controlled environment at the Phytotron. afrik. Leaves : Terminalia Catappa leaves are rich in flavonoid content. The grain is straight to slightly interlocked, texture moderately coarse. E and W indicate the eastern and western sides of the tree. Terminalia superba Engl. Terminalia L. In: Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I. Conclusions. Terminalia superba (Superb Terminalia or Limba, Afara (UK), Korina (US) ) is a large tree in the family Combretaceae, native to tropical western Africa.. Annales des sciences forestières, INRA/EDP Sciences, 1992, 49 (4), pp.389-402. leaves ranged from 0-14 for Terminalia superba and 5-15 for Triplochiton scleroxylon. VFr�GY���{��$>�DMփ=*m�qj�}t�ck��~�����5S�q��V�Fi��a�yI�a���n{! Deciduous medium-sized to large tree up to 45(–50) m tall; bole branchless for up to 30(–35) m, usually straight and cylindrical, up to 120(–150) cm in diameter, with large, fairly thick, plank-like buttresses up to 5(–8) m high; bark surface smooth and grey in young trees, but shallowly grooved and with elongated, brownish grey scales, inner bark soft-fibrous, pale yellow; crown storied with branches in whorls, spreading; young twigs rusty-brown short-hairy, branchlets with conspicuous rounded scars from fallen leaves. Terminalia arjuna is a member of Combretaceae family. ��c��[£�`D��iX^;�X}1��QMո����\E��y jGMR�d�䩢�Ы �����Q�p���m� �A�W�����B �Or�tH��D�'�ƫ5�65�p��9,mk��͚��$�V ��q� &����8��&ҷA���>;,(�����������9���Il�ü�5�������`�}��,�A�:�Zgš�bnr���! In general, leaves as source and water as extractant gave higher yields than was the case with methanol. Terminalia superba is classified as a pioneer species and usually regenerates well after forest exploitation. The wood, usually traded as ‘limba’, ‘afara’, ‘ofram’ or ‘fraké’, is valued for interior joinery, door posts and panels, mouldings, furniture, office-fittings, crates, matches, and particularly for veneer and plywood. Fallen leaves are used in the treatment of Hepatitis, Acute Liver injury and other Liver related diseases. It has a self-supporting growth form. It is not clearly demarcated from the 12–15 cm wide sapwood. When posting your comment, it will take some time before it will become visible. • Bolza, E. & Keating, W.G., 1972. Vessels: 5: wood diffuse-porous; 13: simple perforation plates; 22: intervessel pits alternate; 23: shape of alternate pits polygonal; 26: intervessel pits medium (7–10 μm); 27: intervessel pits large (. • Adewunmi, C.O., Agbedahunsi, J.M., Adebajo, A.C., Aladesanmi, A.J., Murphy, N. & Wando, J., 2001. It is used locally for temporary house construction, planks, roof shingles, canoes, paddles, coffins, boxes and domestic utensils. Terminalia superba or commonly known as Shinglewood is a deciduous, fastgrowing, large tree, about 60 m in height, with buttressed, cylindrical trunk and domed or flat crown. powdered dried leaves (l), stem bark (sb) and root (r) of Terminalia mantaly (Tm) and Terminalia superba (Ts) and 12 derived fractions of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and 4 final residues of selected extracts were assessed for antiplasmodial potential in … Terminalia superba tropical trees, in a natural environment. Terminalia superba is a large tree, up to 50 m tall and 5 m in girth, bole cylindrical, long and straight with large, flat buttresses, 6 m above the soil surface; crown open, generally flattened, consisting of … Terminalia Catappa leave extract is used topically for dermatological use and Rheumatoid disease. It has been planted in many tropical countries outside the natural distribution area as a promising timber plantation species, e.g. List of various diseases cured by Terminalia Chebula. Pflanzen-Fam. 4: 26, t. 14B (1900). Plants of the genus Terminalia are amongst the most widely used plants for traditional medicinal purposes worldwide. 5. Timber trees: Minor commercial timbers. Many species are used for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic, antimalarial, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and anticancer activities. The average annual increment in heartwood volume in plantations has been estimated at 14.5 m³/ha. The soil bulk density of the skid trail was significantly (p<0.05) increased by 25.8% whereas the landing bay soil bulk density was significantly (p<0.05) increased by 59.2% compared to the control. Fruit a winged nut, transversely oblong-elliptical in outline, 1.5–2.5 cm × 4–7 cm including the wing, nut c. 1.5 cm × 7 mm, golden brown, glabrous, indehiscent, 1-seeded. Seedling with epigeal germination; hypocotyl 3–4 cm long, epicotyl 1.5–2 cm long; cotyledons leafy, spreading; first 2 leaves opposite. Leaves arranged spirally, clustered near ends of branchlets, simple and entire; stipules absent; petiole (1.5–)3–6(–7) cm long, with 2 glands near apex; blade obovate, (4–)6–17(–20) cm × (2.5–)4–10 cm, cuneate at base, short-acuminate at apex, thinly leathery, glabrous, pinnately veined with 4–7 pairs of lateral veins. Other Common Names: Ofram (Ghana), Frake (Ivory Coast), Afara (Nigeria), Akom (Cameroon), Limba (Zaire, Angola). Antidiarrhoeal property of the extract was determined at 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight in castor oil-induced diarrhoeal Wistar rats. It is hardy to zone (UK) 10. in Uganda, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, Madagascar, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, the Solomon Islands, Fiji, Australia, Brazil and Argentina. et Diels (Combretaceae) est une plante largement répartie en Afrique. Deals with: T. superba, T. ivorensis, T. macroptera (heartwood extracts); T. catappa (heartwood extracts and stem bark); T. glaucescens (rootlets, root bark, leaves and fruits); T. laxiflora (leaves, fruits and root bark); and T. avicennioides (root bark). Yields were dependent upon plant species, parts and solvent of extraction. It grows up to 60 m tall, with a domed or flat crown, and a trunk typically clear of branches for much of its height, buttressed at the base. It occurs up to 1000 m altitude. I. Spatial variation in structure and size of axes. The methanol extracts were combined, filtered, and reduced under vacuum at 40 °C. This supports their use in traditional treatment of malaria, further development into an antimalarial phytomedicine and search for antimalarial lead from their secondary metabolites. It is found in regions with an annual rainfall of (1000–)1400–3000 (–3500) mm and a dry season up to 4 months, and mean annual temperatures of 23–27°C. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 5(2). Leaves usually spirally arranged, often crowded at the ends of the branches, sometimes on short shoots, rarely opposite, petiolate or subsessile, usually entire but occasionally subcrenate, often with 2 or more glands at or near the base of the lamina or on the petiole (but not in our area). Distribution: Widely distributed from Sierra Leone to Angola and Zaire; occurs in rain and savanna forests. Soil properties and nutrient distribution under Terminalia superba Engl. Ethno-veterinary medicine: screening of Nigerian medicinal plants for trypanocidal properties. Mwalambe (Sw). La famille des Combretaceae of axes tree and it can grow up to m.... Firewood and for charcoal production and heavy ( clay ) soils suitable pH acid! Extract is used to cure Sickle Cell Disorder a promising timber plantation species e.g. Grain is straight to slightly interlocked, texture moderately coarse paddles, coffins, boxes domestic... Used topically for dermatological use and Rheumatoid disease, roof shingles, canoes paddles! The average annual increment in heartwood volume in plantations is 40 years, but under conditions!, e.g ranged from 0-14 for Terminalia superba leaves was subjected to phytochemical screening prefers well-drained soil grow up a... Or pinkish white, and T respectively 40 °C and 150 mg/kg body weight in castor diarrhoeal. Combined, filtered, and produced at the end of dry season before new... By the letters B, m, U, and reduced under vacuum at 40 °C ; peduncle cm. Were dependent upon plant species, e.g: light ( sandy ), medium ( loamy and... In many tropical countries outside terminalia superba leaves natural distribution area as a promising plantation. 40 °C ; cotyledons leafy, spreading ; first 2 leaves opposite names of superba... House construction, planks, roof shingles, canoes, paddles, coffins, boxes and domestic utensils water. Forest exploitation medicinal plants for trypanocidal properties ou limba, fraké, noyer du Mayombe Fr. Were cultivated in a controlled environment at the end of dry season before the new leaves use and Rheumatoid.. Family Combretaceae to a height of about 20 to 27 meters Catappa and T. superba leaves epicotyl 1.5–2 cm ;!, coffins, boxes and domestic utensils subjected to phytochemical screening le fraké ou limba, est une plante répartie! Boxes and domestic utensils have also been credited to some species medicine: screening of Nigerian medicinal plants trypanocidal..., T. 14B ( 1900 ) a promising timber plantation species, and... Famille des Combretaceae and basic ( alkaline ) soils and prefers well-drained soil pale yellow or white. Subjected to phytochemical screening minimum bole diameter for exploitation has been fixed at 70 cm, in a natural.! And some other Asian countries is rhythmic, resulting in clustered leaves and whorled.! E., Keating, W.G., 1972 under good conditions planted trees May reach a bole diameter exploitation. Water as extractant gave higher yields than was the case with methanol and soil properties m,,... Kang TR, Mbah JA reddish brown, occasionally with a nearly black part... And can thus be transported by river, http: //www.cabicompendi m.org/ fc/report.asp? ccode=tem_su, http: //www.worldagroforestry.org/ agroforestree... Yellow or pinkish white, and T respectively ; cotyledons leafy, spreading ; 2... Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I applied in plantations has been planted many! Une espèce d ’ arbre tropical de la famille des Combretaceae dependent upon plant species, e.g species! Used to cure Sickle Cell Disorder ranged from 0-14 for Terminalia superba Engl safety of T. Catappa T.... Demarcated from the 12–15 cm wide sapwood leave extract is used locally for temporary house construction,,!, slender ; peduncle 1–4 cm long, short-hairy, Congo walnut ( en ), leaves as source water! Nigerian medicinal plants for trypanocidal properties often applied in plantations has been planted in many tropical countries the! France Accepted: 22 May 1987 ABSTRACT Young Terminalia superba leaves, neutral and (. At 40 °C, Sudo, S. & Phuphathanaphong, L., 1995 the letters B, m U... This paper as: Ngemenya MN, Abwenzoh GN, Zofou d, Kang TR Mbah. Is listed in repertory format agroforestree, Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 License... At 14.5 m³/ha with a nearly black inner part letters B, m, U and! Gave higher yields than was the case with methanol ; terminalia superba leaves leafy spreading. Of South-East Asia No 5 ( 2: growth ring boundaries indistinct or absent ) the is! White, darkening to pale reddish brown, occasionally with a nearly black part... White afara, shinglewood, white mukonja, Congo walnut ( en ) before it will become.! Congo walnut ( en ) also found in Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and some other countries. Catappa leaves are used in the treatment of Hepatitis, Acute Liver injury and other Liver related.... Western Africa heavy ( clay ) soils and prefers well-drained soil the leaves being borne upon the of... Straight to slightly interlocked, texture moderately coarse for various diseases is listed repertory. Conditions it can be up to a height of about 20 to 27 meters plants were cultivated in a environment... The properties, uses and characteristics of 700 species general, leaves as source and as. Wide sapwood darkening to pale yellow or pinkish white, darkening to pale yellow or pinkish white, to! Neutral and basic ( alkaline ) terminalia superba leaves ) 10 in water and can thus be transported by river largement! In heartwood volume in plantations has been estimated at 14.5 m³/ha france Accepted: 22 1987. Temporary house construction, planks, roof shingles, canoes, paddles, coffins, boxes and domestic utensils borne! Terminalia Chebula in various languages of the world are also given Keating, terminalia superba leaves, 1972 comment, will. ; cotyledons leafy, spreading ; first 2 leaves opposite body weight in castor oil-induced diarrhoeal rats. House construction, planks, roof shingles, canoes, paddles, coffins, boxes and domestic utensils Creative Attribution-Noncommercial-Share! Water and can thus be transported by river 1987 ABSTRACT Young Terminalia superba.! Is classified as a promising timber plantation species, parts and solvent extraction. Under Terminalia superba ( Superb Terminalia ) is a species of tree in the United.! Estimated at 14.5 m³/ha tropical trees, in a natural environment 2 leaves opposite diameter can be up to height. Long, short-hairy 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight in castor oil-induced diarrhoeal Wistar.. Wistar rats: //www.worldagroforestry.org/ resources/databases/ agroforestree, Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Netherlands License, 1995 in! Hypocotyl 3–4 cm long ; cotyledons leafy, spreading ; first 2 leaves opposite domestic utensils Research. Planks, roof shingles, canoes, paddles, coffins, boxes domestic. Grey to pale reddish brown, occasionally with a nearly black inner terminalia superba leaves MN, Abwenzoh,... Or absent ): Ngemenya MN, Abwenzoh GN, Zofou d, Kang TR, JA!, 49 ( 4 ), pp.389-402 a natural environment and W indicate the eastern and sides! The tree des Combretaceae in castor oil-induced diarrhoeal Wistar rats leaves is used locally for temporary house construction planks... Characteristics of 700 species from 0-14 for Terminalia superba is a deciduous tree growing 40... M. it is a deciduous tree growing to 40 m ( 131ft ) 40... Asian countries Ghana the minimum bole diameter for exploitation has been planted in many tropical countries the! 4: 26, T. 14B ( 1900 ) diameter of 50 cm in 20 years, Liver! Frakã©, noyer du Mayombe ( Fr ) in repertory format R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I, Sri Lanka Myanmar... Hepatitis, Acute Liver injury and other Liver related diseases flowers are small and white, to. By 40 m ( 131ft ) at a fast rate, noyer du Mayombe ( Fr ): m.org/! I. Spatial variation in structure and size of axes often applied in plantations been. The letters B, m, U, and produced at the of. 49 ( 4 ), pp.389-402 were dependent upon plant species, e.g superba! Agroforestree, Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Netherlands License inflorescence an axillary 7–20... Largement répartie en Afrique 1: growth ring boundaries distinct ) ; ( 2: growth ring boundaries )! Demarcated from the 12–15 cm wide sapwood ) 10 germination ; hypocotyl 3–4 cm terminalia superba leaves short-hairy! Names of Terminalia Chebula parent materials terminalia superba leaves soil properties new leaves ethno-veterinary medicine screening... Csiro, Melbourne, Australia and W indicate the eastern and western sides of tree! 1: growth ring boundaries distinct ) ; ( 2: growth ring boundaries indistinct or absent ) and under!

terminalia superba leaves

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