It is the motive, the needs, drives, desires and aspirations and the attainment of objectives which inspire the working force to do their best. The plans developed by different managers may vary in respect of scope and importance. Every manager in an organization has to perform the staffing function in one form or the other, in order to get things done through others. In this, thinkers have asserted that “Leaders are born not made.” Anothor group of thinkers assert that “Leadership can be acquired.” This assertion of some of the thinkers have given rise to the concept that “Leaders are both born and made”. Management is a process as it operates the activities systematically. Leadership is the equality of the behaviour of the persons (managers) whereby they inspire confidence and trust in their subordinates, get maximum cooperation from them, and guide their activities in organised effort. Forecasting begins with sales forecasting and is followed by product forecast and forecasts for costs, finance, purchase, profit or loss etc. It also had to develop new skills and resources to build the company’s elevator capabilities. Similarly, the scope of authority may vary and the type of problems dealt with may be considerably different. Financial control is attained through a number of means viz., financial statements interpreted through ratio analysis and budgets. i. Communication is the process by which ideas are transmitted, received and understood by others for the purpose of effecting desired results. In the case of ThyssenKrupp AG, the management had to determine how to support two very different sets of activities if it were to achieve its long-term goal. According to Fayol – ‘To organise a business is to provide it with everything useful to its functioning, raw materials, tools, capital and personnel.” Further, organising is an important managerial activity by which management brings together the manpower and material resources for the achievement of objectives of the enterprise. It is division of work into units, assignment of duties/work to each member, defining relationships with each other so that all members co-ordinate their work with the overall goals. The nature of these functions varies from organisation to organisation. Planning, organising, commanding coordinating, communicating, for-casting and investigation (7). Top Level managers spend more time on planning and organising than do lower-level managers. – Organisation is the process of establishing relationships among the members of the enterprise. Thus, it can be said that staffing is a ‘Pervasive function’ of management like other functions of management. Compensation is the price paid to the workers for the services rendered to the organization. So, a sound motivational system must be productive, competitive, comprehensive and flexible and it must consider the psychological, social, safety, ego and economic needs of the workers. A successful manager makes appropriate use of motivation to actuate the sub-ordinates – “to work harmoniously towards the achievement of organisational goals. Thus, staffing consists of the following- (i) Manpower planning, i.e., assessing manpower requirement in terms of quantity and quality, (ii) Recruitment, selection and training; (iii) Placement of man power; (iv) Development, promotion, transfer and appraisal; (v) Determination of employee remuneration. Management process brings together human, physical and financial resources. Through planning, management defines what the future of the organization should be and how to get there. 4. 9. It is the process of exchanging information and feelings between two or more people and it is essential to effective management.” — Terry and Franklin, “Controlling is determining what is being accomplished, that is, evaluating the performance and, if necessary applying corrective measures so that the performance takes place according to plans.”. This implies that planning is necessary for making preparations, but when it’s time to implement the plan, everything will not go as planned. Though supervision is performed at all levels of management, the major responsibility for supervision lies with the first line of management. Lyndall Urwick: 2. Therefore, the management should be a skilled, experienced, and motivated set of individuals, who will do whatever necessary for the best interest of the company and stakeholders. Control process consist of the same elements irrespective the type of organization or function to be control. Psychology b. Kinetics c. Organizational behavior d. Ergonomics 3. A decision represents a course of behavior chosen from a number of possible alternatives”. Instructing, guiding, and inspiring human force in an organization in achievement of objectives is called directing. The reports are regularly sent to various levels of management for judging the effectiveness of different responsibility centres. (i) Determination of activities required to achieve goals; (ii) Grouping of these activities in to departments; (iii) Assignment of activities to an individual or a group of people; (iv) Delegation of authority to carry them out; (vi) Provision for coordination horizontally and vertically in the organization. Since planning involves taking important decisions, top management devotes more time on planning as compared to lower level management. Leading, on the other hand, takes a great deal of time for first-line supervisors. 4. Further, it is the selecting and relating of facts and the making and using the assumptions regarding the future in the visualisation of formation of proposed activities believed necessary to achieve desired results”. Planning can also be referred to as the process of deciding in advance what is to be done, when and where it is to be done, how it is to be done and by whom it is to be done. Planning consists of the activities involved in choosing courses of action to achieve organisational objectives. It is a process. It is a process of intellectual activity. One thing more, all of the above-discussed functions are inter-related. The importance of motivation can be realized from the fact that performance of a worker depends upon his ability and the motivation. Planning may be long- term or short-term. They are, thus, called pervasive functions of management. i. McFarland, “A decision is an act of choice – wherein an executive forms a conclusion about what must not be done in a given situation. 1. (e) Provisions for co-ordination horizontally (at the same or a similar organisational level) and vertically (for example, corporate headquarter, division and department) in the organisation structure. The most notable features of the process of control is that it is forward looking. That the workers are doing as they were directed to do. It is Result – Oriented / goal oriented. This indicates that managers must necessarily develop decision making skills. Communication thus is a (i) two way traffic, (ii) continuous process, (iii) short- period process, and (iv) process of conveying messages etc., by adopting numerous media of communication. There are five basic and fundamental functions of management that signifies a systematic structure describing the processes, roles and responsibilities for operating a productive organisation. Instead, the activities are continued as new activities are started. The act of directing or direction is the essence of all operations in an organisation that involves leading human and physical resources together through motivation; collaboration; coordination; and delegation. Taking proper steps to safeguard the family from attacks by wil… Similarly, when he is directing the activities of employees, he is also planning, organising and controlling the direction function. Decision-making implies freedom to the decision-maker regarding the final choice. Planning is the management of the organization’s future in an uncertain environment. It is essential to channelize the activities of various individuals in the organization for the achievement of common goals. A formula in Excel always begins with an equal sign (=). Planning provides direction to enterprise activities. Organising involves the grouping of jobs into a framework for coordination and direction. While planning and organising lay foundation of the organisation, directing initiates action on the part of workforce. It is an executive function and extends from top to the bottom. It includes not only the movement of individuals into an organization, but also their movement through (promotion, job rotation, transfer) and out (termination, retirement) of the organization. The team devised plans to develop new human resources and to acquire other material resources. The size and nature of the activities involved, the type of environment and the overall business strategy, influence the structure. (vii) Motivation can be either positive or negative. Massie. As per his opinion a post of position cannot be said to be managerial until and unless the right of Decision-Making is attached to it. Planning is a rational, economic and systematic way of making decisions today which will affect the future. The management knew it could not anticipate all the difficulties it would encounter. Motivation means inspiring the subordinates to do a work or to achieve company objectives effectively and efficiently. Planning, Executing, reviewing (3). Managers must also lead by communicating goals throughout the organization, by building commitment to a common vision, by creating shared values and culture, and by encouraging high performance. vi. Recruiting and selecting people with the best potential, training and compensating them develops future managers and promotes people to higher levels from within the organisation. An ineffective communication leads to confusion, misunderstanding, dissatisfaction and sometimes even strikes. 2. It is deciding in advance what to do, when to do, how to do and who will do it, in order to achieve these objectives. While some of the above functions of management can extend logically from experience and skills developed in entry-level positions, formal training and education may provide advantages. Planning, organising, commanding coordinating and controlling (5). The matrix structure has evolved as a result of complex environments, markets and technology. A process is a set of activities that are ongoing and interrelated. Planning must be followed by control; if it is to be successful. It is a made to achieve goals in the organization. Hence, in organization an execute forms a conclusion by developing various course of actions in a given situation. In other words, leading is the influencing of people so that they will contribute. No manager can be successful without communicating effectively with his superiors, peers, sub-ordinates and outsiders. We will look more closely at different types of managers in the next section. 10. Following the equal sign are the elements to be calculated (the operands), such as constants or cell references. But the fact remains that, as managers, all obtain results by establishing an environment for effective group endeavor. A manager’s greatest responsibility is to select, direct, develop and evaluate the people of the organization. Introduction to management. This needs directing or actuating which literally means moving into action. It has to be carefully done so that future uncertainties do not fail the plans. (d) Taking corrective action for correcting deviations so as to ensure attainment of objectives. The knowledge of management revolves around management functions. A budget is a future plan represented in a numerical form. A manager, as an effective leader should consult his sub-ordinates while starting any line of action to ensure their voluntary co-operation. (c) Company of performance with the standards. It is a kind of organized foresight as well as corrective hindsight. (i) The monitoring of programme activities to make sure that end objectives are being met. Objectives provide a rationale for undertaking various activities as well as indicate direction of efforts. The staffing function has gained greater importance because of rapid advancement of technology, increasing size of organisations and complicated behaviour of human beings. It deals with factors which influence motivation and employee morale through coordination, supervision and leadership. It is a managerial function of hiring people, placing them on jobs of their competence, training and developing them so that they perform their best at the respective jobs. It emphasizes that sub-ordinate is to be directed by his own superior only. It is intentional to make sure that all the tasks necessary to accomplish goals are assigned to people who can do best. This example is a long-term strategic plan that will take years to complete and require many changes along the way. Management involves far more than just telling others what to do. Some people consider leading to be both the most important and the most challenging of all managerial activities. Management functions provide structure to management service, theory and practice. 10. There are two types of functions performed by managers. Thus, direction is an important managerial function in securing employee’s contribution. He has no alternative but to provide an inspiring leadership. A properly conducted staffing function helps to lead and control organisational activities. Who is to report to whom? The Five Functions of Management model has the following disadvantages: It omits a large part of most managers role, that of managing relationships, creative problem solving, and working to build a motivated and energized team. (v) It aims at achieving the objectives of organisation by creating right type of responses. Planning process should be an adoptive to the changing business environment. 7. ii. Specifically, organizing involves determining how activities and resources are to be grouped. However, it may not be appropriate to consider reporting as a separate function. iv. For instance, pursuing a business management degree can offer the opportunity to study management philosophies and best practices in order to help one prepare to pursue management positions following graduation. Organizing is that part of managing that involves establishing an intentional structure of roles for people to fill in an organization. It helps in determining the course of action to be followed for achieving various organizational objectives. Observing and responding to what actually happens is called controlling. Once job content is determined, jobs and activities must be grouped to devise an overall structure. Planning bridges the gap between – where we are and where we want to go. 1. iii. This inspiration is caused by the action of motivation. The key functions in the management process are connected, but not always linear. Naturally, they have to plan how to get these products or services penetrated in the market. It is an exercise in problem solving & decision making… A budget should be a specific statement. If the measured performance is found wanting, the manager must find the reasons for the same and take corrective actions. It is through the process of communication that the managerial functions become effective. Staffing means appointing people and placing them at the appropriate jobs. It is the extension function of human resource management. According to KOONTZ, Planning is deciding in advance - what to do, when to do & how to do. The persons at various levels should be involved in preparing a budget. It is the – (i) Productivity, (ii) Competition, (iii) Comprehensiveness, and (iv) Flexibility which form the elements, that is the requisites of a sound system of motivation. Management Thinkers: List of Functions: 1. Managers cannot perform their tasks well unless they have an understanding of and are responsive to, the many elements of the external environment, economic, technological, social, political and ethical factors that affect their areas of operations. ii. The Process Of Organizing Comes Before Planning And After Staffing. Every organization has its own channels of communication. Organizations achieve objectives by using physical and human resources. The following comprehensive classification of managerial functions is given below: Planning is the most basic and primary function of management. So, the quality of managers’ decisions is the Yardstick of their effectiveness and value to the organization. Thus, building an effective organisational team requires planning and control of human resources. It involves deciding in advance the systematic thinking about the ways and the means for the accomplishment of pre-determined objectives or goals. 3. 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